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Bismillah
Praises be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds; and blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.

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What?

There is no difference between Tahajjud and Qiyam al-lail (the late night prayer). If the prayer is performed after one had slept then it is called Tahajjud otherwise it is called Qiyam-al-lail.

When?

The time of Tahajjud (or even Qiyam al-lail) starts after obligatory prayer of Isha and extends till dawn. There is no specific time for this prayer so it may be performed at any time of night but the preferred time is the last third of the night.

Can we perform it during Ramadan?

Yes. The night prayer is a confirmed Sunnah, its rule does not change even in the month of Ramadhan. However, performing it during Ramadan is better than during other months.

How?

There is no specific number of Rakah of this night prayer but the Prophet never prayed more than thirteen Rakah during Ramadhan or any other time.

The Sunnah is to be performed in sets of two Rakah.

It is recommended to shorten the first two Rakah making the remaining Rakah longer. And then one should end it with one Rakah of Witr. One may also make Dua Qunoot in Witr if he likes.

The person who does not memorize much Qur’an may recite many short Surahs in one Rakah or he may read looking in the Mus-haf too.

Why?

There are many benefits of Tahajjud prayer.

Some are mentioned here:

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More Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the difference between Qiyam ul Layl and Tahajud?
Also, What are the rewards for he who prays these prayers?

A1. http://islamqa.info/en/ref/143240

Q2. What are some ways to motivate me to pray Qiyam Allayl or
Tahajjud?

A2. http://islamqa.info/en/ref/3749

Q3. What is the reward for qiyaam al-layl (praying at night, after Isha’)?

A3. http://islamqa.info/en/ref/50070

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Resources:
http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=83333  , http://islamqa.info/en & other Websites indicated in this article.
Image Credits: http://muslimmatters.org
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